Det urgamla jordbrukslandet Mexiko hör fortfarande till världens främsta majs- och grönsaksodlare, men sedan början av 1900-talet har först oljeutvinningen och senare industrin fått allt större betydelse för ekonomin. After the slowdown of 2001 the country has recovered and has grown 4.2, 3.0 and 4.8 percent in 2004, 2005 and 2006,[249] even though it is considered to be well below Mexico's potential growth. Plaza México in Mexico City, which seats 45,000 people, is the largest bullring in the world. It has since been recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[439]. This movement would result in the creation of the state-owned Mexican oil company Pemex. [378][379] Modern Asian immigration began in the late 19th century, and at one point in the early 20th century the Chinese were the second largest immigrant group. [109] Then, the Criollo Royalist, Agustin Iturbide, instead of attacking Vicente Guerrero, approached Guerrero to join forces as he was impressed with his tenacity despite fighting larger odds, and on 24 August 1821 representatives of the Spanish Crown and Iturbide signed the "Treaty of Córdoba" and the "Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire", which recognized the independence of Mexico under the terms of the "Plan of Iguala". Through business partnerships Satmex provides high-speed connectivity to ISPs and Digital Broadcast Services. [223] Social determinants of health can be used to evaluate the state of health in Mexico. Luis Echeverría, Minister of the Interior under Díaz Ordaz, carrying out the repression during the Olympics, was elected president in 1970. [414] Mexico's medical infrastructure is highly rated for the most part and is usually excellent in major cities,[415][416] but rural communities still lack equipment for advanced medical procedures, forcing patients in those locations to travel to the closest urban areas to get specialized medical care. By 2006, Telmex had expanded its operations to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, and the United States. [115] Conservatives revolted, touching off civil war between rival Liberal and Conservative governments (1858–61). Other major urban areas include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana, Ciudad Juárez, and León. Obregón and two other Sonoran revolutionary generals drew up the Plan of Agua Prieta, overthrowing Carranza, who died fleeing Mexico City in 1920. [464], In 2013, Mexico's basketball team won the Americas Basketball Championship and qualified for the 2014 Basketball World Cup where it reached the playoffs. In the religious sphere, the diocese of Mexico was created in 1530 and elevated to the Archdiocese of Mexico in 1546, with the archbishop as the head of the ecclesiastical hierarchy, overseeing Roman Catholic clergy. [230], President Felipe Calderón (2006–12) made eradicating organized crime one of the top priorities of his administration by deploying military personnel to cities where drug cartels operate. In 1916, the winners met at a constitutional convention to draft the Constitution of 1917, which was ratified in February 1917. Sculpture was an integral part of pre-Hispanic Mesoamerican civilizations, (Mayans, Olmecs, Toltecs, Mixtecs, Aztecs), and others, usually religious in nature. Ändå utgör handel och tjänster, inklusive turismen, numera huvuddelen av bruttonationalprodukten. [110], The first thirty-five years after Mexico's independence were marked by political instability and the changing form of the Mexican State, from a monarchy to a federated republic. PRI rule became increasingly authoritarian and at times oppressive in what is now referred to as the Mexican Dirty War.[136]. [297] Many scientific institutes and new institutes of higher learning, such as National Polytechnic Institute (founded in 1936),[298] were established during the first half of the 20th century. With the Spaniards came the pork, beef and chicken meats; peppercorn, sugar, milk and all its derivatives, wheat and rice, citrus fruits and another constellation of ingredients that are part of the daily diet of Mexicans. [130] Germany attempted to get Mexico to side with it, sending a coded telegram in 1917 to incite war between the U.S. and Mexico, with Mexico to regain the territory it lost in the Mexican-American War. Voyez les conditions d’utilisation pour plus de détails. Mexiko deltog första gången vid olympiska sommarspelen 1900 i Paris och har sedan 1924 varit med vid varje olympiskt sommarspel.De deltog första gången vid olympiska vinterspelen 1928 i Sankt Moritz och de har sedan 1984 deltagit vid de flesta olympiska vinterspelen. Although the Spanish had established colonies in the Caribbean starting in 1493, it was not until the second decade of the sixteenth century that they began exploring the coast of Mexico. In 2014 alone, more than $10 billion in investment was committed. Sullivan, Paul. Mexico's total area is 1,972,550 km2 (761,606 sq mi), making it the world's 13th largest country by total area. Romanticists from a past seen through archeology show images of medieval Europe, Islamic and pre-Hispanic Mexico in the form of architectural elements in the construction of international exhibition pavilions looking for an identity typical of the national culture. [87][88] The Virgin of Guadalupe became a symbol for American-born Spaniards' (criollos) patriotism, seeking in her a Mexican source of pride, distinct from Spain. The denominations Pentecostal also have an important presence, especially in the cities of the border and in the indigenous communities. [90] Wealth created during the colonial era spurred the development of New Spanish Baroque. In addition to on-going investments to expand access, the government has embarked on a large investment program to improve wastewater treatment. Meyer, Michael C., William L. Sherman, and Susan M. Deeds. Mexico City is one of the most important cultural and financial centers in the world. Gilberto Aceves Navarro is also considered an important contemporary artist. [310] The Mexico City International Airport remains the busiest in Latin America and the 36th busiest in the world[316] transporting 45 million passengers a year.[317]. Mexico is a small mill town for the papermaking industry. [386] In written form, the Spanish Royal Academy serves as the primary guideline for spelling, except for words of Amerindian origin that retain their original phonology such as cenzontle instead of sinzontle and México not Méjico. The post-revolutionary project of the Mexican government sought to bring order to the country, end military intervention in politics, and create organizations of interest groups. [45] The tradition of writing was important after the Spanish conquest in 1521.[50]. [112] There was constant strife between Liberals, supporters of a federal form of decentralized government and often called Federalists and their political rivals, the Conservatives, who proposed a hierarchical form of government, were termed Centralists. The Jalisco School was a proposal of those socio-political movements that the country demanded. [169], The executive is the President of the United Mexican States, who is the head of state and government, as well as the commander-in-chief of the Mexican military forces. Landet är idag bland de 15 största ekonomierna i världen. [260] The bottom ten percent in the income hierarchy disposes of 1.36% of the country's resources, whereas the upper ten percent dispose of almost 36%. Mexican sopranos include Marta Domingo, Maria Katzarava, and singer Susana Zabaleta. [345][344][346] The ideology's influence was reflected in Mexico's national censuses of 1921 and 1930: in the former, which was Mexico's first-ever national census (but second-ever if the census made in colonial times is taken into account)[81] that considered race, approximately 60% of Mexico's population identified as Mestizos,[347] and in the latter, Mexico's government declared that all Mexicans were now Mestizos, for which racial classifications would be dropped in favor of language-based ones in future censuses. [197] Mexico supported the Cuban government since its establishment in the early 1960s,[198] the Sandinista revolution in Nicaragua during the late 1970s,[199] and leftist revolutionary groups in El Salvador during the 1980s. The declaration of independence signed on 6 November 1813 by the deputies of the Congress of Anáhuac called the territory América Septentrional (Northern America); the 1821 Plan of Iguala also used América Septentrional. Most of the African-descended population was absorbed into the surrounding Mestizo (mixed European/indigenous) and indigenous populations through unions among the groups. Kategori Diskussion. [123] They rejected theology and idealism in favor of scientific methods being applied towards national development. Notable Amerindian revolts in sporadically populated northern New Spain include the Chichimeca War (1576–1606),[92] Tepehuán Revolt (1616–1620),[93] and the Pueblo Revolt (1680), the Tzeltal Rebellion of 1712 was a regional Maya revolt. He met Mexican scientist Andrés Manuel del Río Fernández, who discovered the element vanadium in 1801. Vid den tiden hette landet Aztekernas rike och styrdes av hövdingen Tenoch. [167], The federal Congress, as well as the state legislatures, are elected by a system of parallel voting that includes plurality and proportional representation. The viceroy was highest official of the State. [60] The unconquered city-state of Tlaxcala allied with the Spanish against their enemies, the Aztecs of Tenochtitlan. ", "Los aztecas, disquisiciones sobre un gentilico", "The Peopling of Mexico from Origins to Revolution", "Asia llega a América. Rail transport engineering, public transport engineering", "Mexico Real Estate In Yucatan to Benefit from New Bullet Train", "Acerca del AICM. Mexican society enjoys a vast array of music genres, showing the diversity of Mexican culture. The Liberals defeated the Conservative army on the battlefield, but Conservatives sought another solution to gain power via foreign intervention by the French. [405] Other groups are growing, such as Iglesia apostólica de la Fe en Cristo Jesús, Mennonites and Seventh-day Adventist Church and Church of the La Luz del Mundo, which has its center in "La Hermosa Provincia", a colony of Guadalajara. He died while in their custody and the Spanish retreated from Tenochtitlan in great disarray. Läge i Mexiko Amatepec är en ort i Mexiko , och administrativ huvudort i kommunen Amatepec i den sydvästra delen av delstaten Mexiko , i den centrala delen av landet. In the Sonoran Desert temperatures reach 50 °C (122 °F) or more. Famous actors and actresses from this period include María Félix, Pedro Infante, Dolores del Río, Jorge Negrete and the comedian Cantinflas. Agustín Victor Casasola is the most famous of photographer of the revolutionary era, and he collected other photographers' images in the Casasola Archive; his vast collection was purchased by the Mexican government and is now part of the government photographic repository, the Fototeca. [325] Even then, across the years the government has used different criteria to count Indigenous peoples, with each of them returning considerably different numbers ranging from 6.1%[1] to 23% of the country's population. Mexican films were exported and exhibited in all of Latin America and Europe. In certain regions, the profession of a creed other than the Catholic is seen as a threat to community unity. Between 1820 and 1880 the predominant themes were, successively: religious images, biblical scenes, allegories to the symbols of the independence insurgency, scenes and personages of pre-Hispanic history, and busts of the old aristocracy, of the nascent bourgeoisie and commanders of the pre-revolution. [386] The letter x is distinctly used in Mexican Spanish, which may be pronounced as [ks] (as in oxígeno or taxi), as [ʃ] particularly in Amerindian words (e.g. As of 2017[update], it is estimated that 1.2 million foreigners have settled in the country,[333] up from nearly 1 million in 2010. Una relectura de los censos generales de población", "México sin mestizaje: una reinterpretación de nuestra historia", "Al respecto no debe olvidarse que en estos países buena parte de las personas consideradas biológicamente blancas son mestizas en el aspecto cultural, el que aquí nos interesa (p. 196)", "El mestizaje es un mito, la identidad cultural sí importa", "Indicadores seleccionados sobre la población hablante de lengua indígena, 1950 a 2005", "¿Qué es y cómo se determina un hogar indígena? Läs på ett annat språk; Bevaka; Redigera; Wikimedia Commons har media som rör Mexiko. The Afro-Mexican population (2,576,213 individuals as of 2020[update])[1][372] is an ethnic group made up of descendants of Colonial-era slaves and recent immigrants of sub-Saharan African descent. As a visibly mixed-race man of modest origins, Guerrero was seen by white political elites as an interloper. [224] By law, all defendants have the rights that assure them fair trials and humane treatment; however, the system is overburdened and overwhelmed with several problems. [408] In general, popular religiosity is viewed with bad eyes by institutionally structured religions. Society was organized in a racial hierarchy, with whites on top, mixed-race persons and blacks in the middle, and indigenous at the bottom. Popularity over several decades has caused local tropical variants to form that have mixed with the folklore of Mexico, examples like the Mexican cumbia are part of this merger, of which the most successful grouping in recent years has been Los Ángeles Azules. Due to the process of evangelization, when the first monastic temples and monasteries were built, their own models were projected, such as the mendicant monasteries, unique in their type in architecture. The Catholic Church played an important role in spreading Christianity and the Spanish language, while also preserving some indigenous cultures. Et ønske om uafhængighed fra Spanien førte til en lang krig, der endte med uafhængighed i 1821.Efter uafhængigheden blev territoriet langsomt mindre. ", "Mexico Is Solidly Middle Class (No Matter What Trump Says)", "Should poverty be defined by a single international poverty line, or country by country? On Monday, 9 March 2020, the second day of action was marked by the absence of women at work, in class, shopping and other public activities.